Nutrition – 1 (not NCLEX)

  1. List two examples of essential nutrients:
  2. How many calories equal 1 kilocalorie?
  3. 1 gram of carbohydrates = _____ kilocalorie.
  4. 1 gram of fat = ____ kilocalorie.
  5. 1 gram of protein = ___ kilocalorie.
  6. The recommended carbohydrate % is ______ % of total daily intake.
  7. Simple sugars include:
  8. What type of simple sugars are found in IV solutions?
    1. Galactose
    2. Dextrose
    3. Complex sugars
    4. Refined blood sugars

 

9.  What provides a source of blood glucose that lasts over time?

  1. Starches
  2. Simple sugars
  3. Proteins
  4. Fats

 

10.  List 2 examples of complete proteins:

11.  True or false: Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids.

12.  True or False: Incomplete proteins are proteins of the plant origin.

13.  Recommended protein % is _____ % of total daily intake.

14.  What 4 vitamins are fat soluble?

15.  What fraction of the American population is overweight?

16.  Which cholesterol is considered the “bad guys”? LDL or HDL?

17.  True or false: Polyunsaturated fats lower both the LDL and HDL.

18.  True or False: Monounsaturated fats raise the HDL cholesterol.

19.  Name two water soluble vitamins:

20.  Which 2 vitamins rely on each other for activation?

  1. Pantothenic acid and Vitamin B6
  2. Folate and Vitamin B12
  3. Biotin and Niacin
  4. B2 and Thiamin

 

21.  The disease “Pellegria” is caused by a deficiency in what vitamin?

  1. Niacin
  2. Riboflavin
  3. Vitamin B12
  4. Thiamin

 

22.  True or False: Pantothenic Acid and Biotin deficiencies are rare.

23.  What foods would be recommended for people who suffer from the disease “Beri-Beri”?

  1. Tuna and chicken.
  2. Broccoli and grapefruits
  3. Meats and sunflower seeds
  4. Milk products and oranges.

 

24.  What disease is associated with a Vitamin C deficiency?

  1. Pellegria
  2. Neural tube defects
  3. Scurvy
  4. Pitted edema

 

25.  True or False: Vitamin B6 is also called Folate.

26.  List an example of the nutritional goal from the Healthy People 2010 report. How many nutritional goals are in this report?

27.  A patient comes in with the diagnosis of Rickets. What vitamin is she deficient in?

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B
  3. Vitamin C
  4. Vitamin D

 

28.  A man has been experiencing night-blindness. What vitamin could he be deficient in?

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B
  3. Vitamin C
  4. Vitamin D

 

29.  A 59 year old woman is diagnosed with Hemolytic anemia. What foods would be recommended for her to eat?

  1. Fish oils
  2. Eggs, cheese
  3. Yellow fruits
  4. Grains, nuts.

 

30.  Hypercalcemia is caused by the toxicity of what vitamin?

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin D
  3. Vitamin E
  4. Vitamin K

 

31.  Blood clotting is the function of which vitamin?

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin D
  3. Vitamin E
  4. Vitamin K

 

32.  When evaluating the history of a client who has gastrointestinal (GI) upset, the nurse is sure to assess the client for routine ingestion of the following (select all that apply):

  1. High fiber foods
  2. Beer
  3. Acetaminophen
  4. Aspirin

 

33.  A client has gained 2 pounds of weight in the past day. The nurse calculates this weight gain to be ______ ml of fluid.

34.  What is the ideal BMI? _____%

35.  A BMI greater than ____% places a client in a higher risk for coronary heart disease, some cancers, DM, and hypertension.

  1. Carbohydrates, Proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water.
  2. 1000 calories = 1 kcalorie.
  3. 4
  4. 9
  5. 4
  6. 50-60%
  7. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
  8. B. Dextrose
  9. A. Starches.

10.  Meats, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk

11.  True.

12.  True. This includes legumes, grains, seeds, nuts.

13.  15-20%.

14.  A, D, E, K.

15.  1/3

16.  LDL (low-density lipoproteins). Come from saturated fats from animals.

17.  True. Polyunsaturated fats are considered plant fat. Found primarily in vegetable oils, corn oil, and soybean oil.

18.  True. Raises the HDL cholesterol. Considered the “good guys” of the fats. Foods include peanut oil, olive oil, almonds, pecans, and peanuts.

19.  The B-vitamins and C.

20.  B. Folate (folic acid) and Vitamin B12. Closely related to one another.

21.  A. Niacin.

22.  True. Are widespread in foods.

23.  C. Meats (pork and ham), legumes, sunflower seeds and whole-wheat bread are examples.

24.  C. Scurvy. (bleeding, muscles degenerate, wounds won’t heal, teeth loosen)

25.  False. The correct answer would be pyridoxine.

26.  Reduce the incidence of overweight people by 23%. There are 21 nutritional goals listed.

27.  D. Vitamin D helps with the absorption of calcium and is used for the calcification of bones.

28.  A. Vitamin A helps with visual activity and adaptations from light to dark and vice versa.

29.  D. She would be deficient in the vitamin E. Other foods that would be recommended would be green leafy vegetables, fats, oils, and liver.

30.  B. Vitamin D toxicity also caused renal canculli.

31.  D. Vitamin K. A deficiency can cause bleeding and bruising.

32.  B and D. Alcohol and aspirin are two substances directly absorbed through the lining of the stomach. This can contribute to GI upset.

33.  1000 ml. Each pound = 500ml of fluid.

34.  25% or lower.

35.  35%

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